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A decline in memory and cognitive (thinking) function is considered by many authorities to be a normal consequence of aging.   While age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) is therefore not considered a disease, authorities differ on whether ARCD is in part related to Alzheimer?s disease and other forms of dementia or whether it is a distinct entity. People with ARCD experience deterioration in memory and learning, attention and concentration, thinking, use of language, and other mental functions.  Risk factors for ARCD include advancing age, female gender, prior heart attack, and heart failure.


ARCD usually occurs gradually. Sudden cognitive decline is not a part of normal aging. When people develop an illness such as Alzheimer?s disease, mental deterioration usually happens quickly. In contrast, cognitive performance in elderly adults normally remains stable over many years, with only slight declines in short-term memory and reaction times.   Read more below...


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People sometimes believe they are having memory problems when there are no actual decreases in memory performance. Therefore, assessment of cognitive function requires specialized professional evaluation. Psychologists and psychiatrists employ sophisticated cognitive testing methods to detect and accurately measure the severity of cognitive decline. A qualified health professional should be consulted if memory impairment is suspected.


Dietary changes that may be helpful: In the elderly population of southern Italy, which eats a typical Mediterranean diet, high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., olive oil) has been associated with protection against ARCD in preliminary research. However, the monounsaturated fatty acid content of this diet might only be a marker for some other dietary or lifestyle component responsible for a low risk of ARCD.


Caffeine may improve cognitive performance. Higher levels of coffee consumption were associated with improved cognitive performance in elderly British people in a preliminary study. Older people appeared to be more susceptible to the performance-improving effects of caffeine than were younger people. Similar but weaker associations were found for tea consumption. These associations have not yet been studied in clinical trials.


Animal studies suggest that diets high in antioxidant-rich foods, such as spinach and strawberries, may be beneficial in slowing ARCD. Among people aged 65 and older, higher vitamin C and beta-carotene levels in the blood have been associated with better memory performance, though these nutrients may only be markers for other dietary factors responsible for protection against cognitive disorders.  One preliminary study found that, among middle-aged men, those who ate more tofu had a higher rate of cognitive decline compared with men who ate less tofu. Since tofu and other soy products have consistently demonstrated important health benefits in this age group (e.g., as cholesterol-lowering foods), middle-aged men should not limit their consumption of these foods until the results of this isolated study are independently confirmed.


Lifestyle changes that may be helpful: Cigarette smokers and people with high levels of education appear to have some protection against ARCD. The reason for each of these associations remains unknown. However, as cigarette smoking generally is not associated with other health benefits and results in serious health risks, doctors recommend abstinence from smoking, even by people at risk of ARCD.


Nutritional supplements that may be helpful: Several clinical trials suggest that acetyl-L-carnitine delays onset of ARCD and improves overall cognitive function in the elderly.


Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency is common among people over age 65. A Finnish study demonstrated that approximately 25% of Finnish and Dutch elderly people are deficient in vitamin B6 as compared to younger adults. In a double-blind trial, correcting this deficiency with 2 mg of pyridoxine per day resulted in small psychological improvements in the elderly group. However, the study found no direct correlation between amounts of vitamin B6 in the cells or blood and psychological parameters. A more recent double-blind trial of 38 healthy men, aged 70 to 79 years, showed that 20 mg pyridoxine per day improved memory performance, especially long-term memory.


Supplementation with vitamin B12 may improve cognitive function in elderly people who have been diagnosed with a B12 deficiency. Such a deficiency in older people is not uncommon. In a preliminary trial, intramuscular injections of 1,000 mcg of vitamin B12 were given once per day for a week, then weekly for a month, then monthly thereafter for 6 to 12 months. Researchers noted ?striking? improvements in cognitive function among 22 elderly people with vitamin B12 deficiency and cognitive decline. Cognitive disorders due to vitamin B12 deficiency may also occur in people who do not exhibit the anemia that often accompanies vitamin B12 deficiency. For example, in a study of 141 elderly people with cognitive abnormalities due to B12 deficiency, 28% had no anemia. All participants were given intramuscular injections of vitamin B12, and all showed subsequent improvement in cognitive function.


Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain. It is partially responsible for regulating sleep-wake cycles. Cognitive function is linked to adequate sleep and normal sleep-wake cycles. Cognitive benefits from melatonin supplementation have been suggested by preliminary research in a variety of situations and may derive from the ability of melatonin to prevent sleep disruptions. A double-blind trial of ten elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment showed that 6 mg of melatonin taken two hours before bedtime significantly improved sleep, mood, and memory, including the ability to remember previously learned items. However, in a double-blind case study of one healthy person, 1.6 mg of melatonin had no immediate effect on cognitive performance.


Use of vitamin C or vitamin E supplements, or both, has been associated with better cognitive function and a reduced risk of certain forms of dementia (not including Alzheimer?s disease). Clinical trials of these antioxidants are needed to confirm the possible benefits suggested by this study.

                                                                                                        (Reference: VitaminShoppe.com)


Wellness Plans for Memory & Brain Health

  • Regular exercise and weight control
  • Balanced diet emphasizing fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Stress management and relaxation

Recommended Supplements for Memory & Brain Health (Click links above to purchase individual supplements from online stores)

(Essential in bold)

  Vitamins, Minerals and Trace Elements
  ? Vitamin B6   ? Vitamin B12
  ? Vitamin C   ? Vitamin E
  ? Boron   ? Calcium
  ? Coral Calcium   ? Copper
  ? Choline   ? Folic Acid
  ? Magnesium   ? Manganese
  ? Pantothenic Acid   ? Potassium
  ? Selenium   ? Zinc
  Nutritional Supplements
  ? CoEnzyme Q10   ? DHEA
  ? Inositol   ? L-Carnitine
  ? L-Lysine   ? Melatonin
  ? SAM-e  
  Natural Food and Herbal Supplements
  ? EPA Fish Oil   ? Gingko Biloba
  ? Ginseng   ? Gota Kola
  ? Grape Seed Extract   ? Kava Kava
  ? Nettle   ? Pycnogenol


Read Related Links on Memory & Brain Health

  1. Memory - a great resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

  2. Overview of the Brain - Provides an excellent summary of the brain's anatomy (Chapter 3) by the Brain Tumor Foundation of Canada

  3. Keeping Health in Mind: Ten Tips to Keep Your Memory Sharp - provided by the Mayo Foundation

  4. The Fundamentals of Mental Health and Mental Illness - A report on Mental Health by the U.S. Surgeon General

  5. Forgetfulness: It's Not Always What You Think - published by the National Institute on Aging

  6. Alzheimer's Disease - general overview provided by the National Institute on Aging

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Information on this site is provided for informational purposes and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own physician or other medical profession. You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a problem or disease, or prescribing any medication. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider.  Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.  Please review the Terms of Use before using this site.  Your use of the site indicates your agreement to be bound by the Terms of Use.



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